Ultrasound is a valuable tool for diagnosis and treatment in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology. Basically ultrasound uses sound waves and not any other form of radiation ,so it very safe to use in pregnancy as it does not cause any harm to the developing baby .one can diagnose a very early
pregnancy and also one can verify that it’s a viable pregnancy by locating the baby’s heart as early as six weeks after the last menstrual period .sometimes the pregnancy is located outside the uterus Known as ectopic pregnancy. this is a very dangerous condition and can be diagnosed with good accuracy by the sonography machine .also in cases of bleeding during pregnancy one can locate the cause and know if there is going to be an abortion or not. During the 12 to 14 weeks of pregnancy we use the sonography to determine if there is a risk of down syndrome in the baby this is done by measuring nuchal thickness and and combining it with blood test .The Anamoly scan is done at 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy where all the internal organs of the baby are scanned to look for any abnormality.at this time the location of the placenta is also noted.sometimes the placenta is located very close to the mouth of the womb and can cause a lot of bleeding ..This is known as placenta PREVIA .Subsequently regular serial Sonograms can help us to know whether the baby is growing properly or not and we can nowadays with the help of colour Doppler find out if the baby is getting adequate blood supply or not. close to delivery Sono Graphy is a valuable tool for planning mode of delivery .the liquor amnii Which is the water around the baby can sometimes be decreased and cause cord compression and low oxygen levels in the baby. this can be easily found out by doing sonography. also one can find out if the umbilical cord is twisted around the baby and can cause problems during labour pains .so basically 4 scans are usually required in pregnancy.first between 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy for location and viability of pregnancy.second is between 12 to 14 weeks for noting risk of Down’s syndrome.Third at 18 weeks for ruling out physical abnormalities in the baby and the 4th scan in the last month of pregnancy for noting growth and ruling out any complications expectedt delivery.