Laparoscopic Surgery is also otherwise known as keyhole surgery .some people also know it know it as laser surgery though a laser is not always used in it.
Laparoscopy is a modern invention and is Used to perform surgeries through small multiple cuts on the belly to perform the very same surgeries which are done through the traditional method.there are some limitations though and not all surgeries can be done through the laparoscope.the benefit of laparoscope is reduced post surgery pain and reduced chances of infection so patient can be back to normal in as less as 48 hours of surgery. Traditional surgery means a recovery time of at least 5 to 7 days depending on type of surgery and size of the incision.
Some laparoscopic surgeries are so simple and convenient that the patient is well enough to go home the same evening as that of surgery.examples would be like a family planning operation or surgery for a simple ovarian cyst.laparoscopy is invaluable for diagnosis in case of infertility.we get so much information about the uterus size and shape,the condition of the tubes which carry the eggs ,whether they are blocked (methylene blue test) or not or whether they are diseased.the ovaries arre very nicely seen and one can do pcod cautery (for polycystic ovaries at the same time) at the same time.one can also diagnose endometriosis ( a condition where there are cysts in ovaries and blood clots,like chocolate cysts leading to painful periods and infertility).
Removal of chocolate cysts and removal of fibroids can also be done by the laparoscopic route.the difficulty depends on the size of the lesion and associated intestinal adhesions and might sometimes need a high level of expertise to carry out the surgery successfully.
Removal of the diseased uterus is called hysterectomy and can be easily carried out through the laparoscope.
Complex laparoscopic procedures like cancer surgery can also be done by the laparoscopic route though it needs a greater experience and expertise on the part of the operating surgeon.