The “third-party reproduction” involves the use of eggs, sperm, or embryos that have been donated by a third person (donor) to enable an infertile individual or couple (intended recipient) to become parents. Surrogacy is gestational-carrier arrangements where the pregnancy is carried by someone (surrogate mother) other than the intended parent(s). Third-party reproduction is a complex process which has social, ethical, and legal challenges.
In all these treatments, informed consent and counselling to both the donors and the recipient(s) to address the potential issues that gamete donation might raise, is very important.
- Who will require Egg donation ?
Women with following conditions will require treatment with egg donation :
- Reduced fertility potential due to poor ovarian reserve (very low AMH)
- Ovarian failure ( Natural / surgical removal of ovaries / radiation / chemotherapy)
- Serious genetic disorder
- Repeated IVF failures due to poor egg quality
- What are the steps involved in Egg Donation Treatment ?
In this treatment process the woman receives eggs donated by a younger, fertile woman.
The steps involved in treatment are :
- Donor selection and screening process
Donor undergoes detailed history taking, Laboratory Testing (AMH, Ultrasound, routine tests, blood group, infection screens and STD testing) , Genetic Screening (Karyotyping) -and Psychological Assessment
- Matching of Donor
According to ICMR guidelines its anonymous donation. Donors will be matched to recipient based on physical characteristics ( height, skin / eye/ hair colour, facial features)
- Evaluation and preparation of recipient including counselling and psychological support.
- The wife undergoes an evaluation of her uterine cavity and then her endometrium is prepared with appropriate hormones.
- Treatment process : Eggs are collected from donors after stimulation . They are fertilised with recipient’s husband sperms and embryos are created in lab. These embryos are then transferred to recipients womb (uterus).
- Who will require sperm donation ?
Treatment with donor sperm is required when husband is having following abnormalities :
- Azoospermia ( absence of sperm )
- Severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia ( very less abnormal sperm)
- Genetic abnormalities
- Repeated IVF failures due to poor sperm quality
- How is the selection of sperm donor ?
Sperm donors are anonymous according to ICMR guidelines. They undergo detailed history taking, Laboratory Testing (Semen analysis and culture, routine tests, blood group, infection screens and STD testing) , Genetic Screening (Karyotyping). Semen is collected and kept frozen in sperm bank . After 6 months of quarantine period the donor is again tested for infection screening tests (HIV/ HBsAg/HCV/VDRL) and once negative the sample is released for the use.
- What treatment processes can be used for donor sperm ?
Donor is selected based on physical characteristics ( height, skin / eye/ hair colour, facial features) of husband.
It can be used for :
- Intrauterine Insemination with Donor Sperm (AID)
Donor sperms are inseminated in the womb(uterus) of wife at the time of ovulation.
- IVF / ICSI with Donor Sperms
Eggs are collected from the wife after stimulation. The fertilization is done with Donor Sperm by IVF/ICSI process in lab. The resultant embryos are then placed in the womb (uterus )
- Who will require Embryo Donation ?
- Severe fertility problems in both the partners
- Genetic problems
- Repeated pregnancy loss or IVF failure with poor quality eggs and sperms
- What is the treatment process in Embryo Donation ?
– The couple should undergo the appropriate medical and psychological screening .
– The wife undergoes an evaluation of her uterine cavity and then her endometrium is prepared with appropriate hormones.
– The embryos are created using donor eggs and donor sperms by IVF/ICSI process considering above mentioned selection processes for both egg and sperm donors.
Then the embryos are transferred to the womb (uterus ) of wife.